Sesimpel ini Mengenal Dampak Pembuatan Bursa Karbon di NKRI

Okay kali ini kita bahas bursa karbon di NKRI yang baru-baru ini lagi banyak dibicarakan karena adanya UU No 4 Tahun 2023 tentang P2SK (Pengembangan dan Penguatan Sektor Keuangan), salah satunya memuat tentang bursa karbon.

Analogi Apa Itu Bursa Karbon

Sebelum jauh, ada baiknya kita main analogi biar lebih paham apa itu bursa karbon. Kali ini bayangkan ada desa yang bernama “Desa Hijau”, desa tersebut terkenal bersih dan asri, setiap rumah dijatah untuk mengatur jumlah emisi karbon yang boleh dihasilkan. Misalnya, di rumah David berinvestasi dalam teknologi hijau sehingga berhasil mengurangi emisi dibawah batas kuota yang ditetapkan Desa Hijau, karena itu David memiliki sisa “hak menyimpan polusi” yang dapat dijual di Bursa Karbon. Nah, peran Bursa karbon sebagai wadah atau pasar dalam melakukan transaksi antara David dengan pemilik rumah lainnya yang ada di Desa Hijau.

Sejarah perdagangan karbon

Sebetulnya sudah sejak 1972 perdagangan karbon dijalankan, puncaknya pada tanggal 12 Desember 2015 dalam Perjanjian Paris (Paris Agreement) yang disepakati 195 dalam menurunkan suhu global tidak naik lebih dari 2^0C. 

Nah, analogi di slide sebelumnya merupakan salah satu contoh dari sistem perdagangan karbon cap and trade, dimana dalam dunia nyata, perusahaan dengan hasil audit emisi karbon di bawah kuota yang ditetapkan regulasi dapat menjual sisa kuotanya, adapun perusahaan yang melebihi diwajibkan membayar denda atau bisa juga membeli kuota emisi di Bursa Karbon. 

Bursa Karbon yang ada di dunia saat ini

Daftar 5 Bursa Karbon terbesar di Dunia 

No.Nama Bursa KarbonNegaraTahun Berdiri Bursa Karbon
1European Union Emissions (EU ETS)Uni Eropa2005
2California Carbon Allowance (CCA)Amerika Serikat2012
3Tokyo Emission Trading (Tokyo ETS)Jepang2005
4Emissions Trading System (K-ETS)Republik Korea2015
5Regional Greenhouse GasAustralia2008

Yap, EU ETS menjadi bursa karbon pertama yang diluncurkan pada tahun 2005. Tahun 2022 merupakan tahun dengan harga tertinggi untuk izin karbon di EU ETS dengan mencapai rata-rata lebih dari 80 euro per ton, 50% lebih tinggi dari tahun sebelumnya, karena harga energi melonjak setelah perang di Ukraina dan saat ini EU ETS bernilai sekitar 751 miliar euro (Rp 12.057 triliun) tahun lalu atau setara 87% dari total pasar karbon global!

Pro & Cons bursa karbon

Pro Bursa KarbonKontra Bursa Karbon
Pertama, Mendorong perusahaan untuk mengurangi emisi karbon dan membantu mengatasi perubahan iklimPertama, Implementasi bursa karbon bisa menjadi proses yang rumit dan kompleks.
Kedua, Bursa karbon memberikan insentif ekonomi bagi perusahaan dalam mengurangi emisi karbonKedua, Risiko terjadinya Carbon Leakage cukup tinggi
Ketiga, Pendapatan dan Investasi yang berasal dari penerimaan dan penjualan izin karbon dapat mendukung proyek berkelanjutan guna mengurangi emisiKetiga, Harga karbon dapat berfluktuasi secara signifikan, yang menyebabkan ketidakpastian bagi perusahaan dan investor dalam melakukan perencanaan dan investasi jangka panjang
Keempat, Bursa karbon dapat berfungsi sebaga mekanisme pengaturan emisi yang konsisten dan diakui secara internasional, sehingga dapat memfasilitasi kerjasama global dalam mengatasi perubahan iklimKeempat, Bursa karbon dapat menguntungkan perusahaan besar yang mampu membeli izin karbon dalam jumlah besar, sementara perusahaan kecil mungkin mengalami beban lebih berat dalam mencapai kuota emisi.

Sumber Bursa Karbon di NKRI:


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